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Capsule suspension (CS)

A Capsule Suspension (CS) formulation is a combination of an active ingredient encapsulated in polymer shell suspended in water with a dispersant and wetting agent.

CS formulation diagramCS formulations remain one of the most advanced formulation types for crop protection products worldwide. These are typically next generation formulations. When CS formulations are diluted with water in the spray tank they form a spontaneous suspension, with particles in the size range of 0.1 to 20µm. When sprayed, the dilute emulsion gives a uniform and accurate application of active ingredient on to the crop, which is essential for effective pest control. It is possible to use CS formulations to give controlled or delayed release of pesticides as well as provide better protection against toxic active ingredients or prevent degradation of material.


  • Water based so good safety and user convenience
  • Controlled or delayed release of active ingredient
  • Reduced toxicity
  • Reduced degradation of active ingredient
  • Good bio efficacy
  • Uniform suspension upon dilution
  • Safe to handle
  • No or low solvent content
  • Uses expensive and hazardous monomer
  • Active ingredient needs to be fully soluble in the solvent over a range of temperatures
  • Complex development with limited scope for change to processes
  • Possible incompatibility between active ingredient and monomer
  • Lower active ingredient content

Capsule suspension products


The Formulator's Toolbox (Full Version)

The Formulator's Toolbox
2.8 MB

How to formulate a CS

Here you can see a product demonstration on how to formulate a suspension into capsules.

Example formulations

Formulation finder

Browse our formulation finder to view a range of fully developed formulations for inspiration and guidance.

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The Formulator's Toolbox

We have designed The Formulator’s Toolbox to give formulation scientists an introduction to each of these formulation types.

Agronomist in field

Experimental design tool

This tool enables you to methodically calculate surfactant ratios meaning unnecessary experiments are kept to a minimum.

Need solutions for encapsulation?